Ac Pressure Chart R22

Excels in extreme conditions HyChill refrigerants cool superbly in all conditions, but perform particularly well in extremely hot or tropical conditions, where most other and especially synthetic refrigerants (CFC, HFC, HCFC) fail to perform. In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency began phasing out R22 air conditioning refrigerant. Thicknesses of copper pipes used with R410A are as shown in Table. On the cycle page, you will see a schematic of the cycle with the main points labeled. It is recommended the gauge with seals -0. R22 as transitional refrigerant. If it is open all the time, then the compressor is pressurizing the entire system, which would cause the low side to go high until the pressure switch kicks if off. 8: Critical pressure: bara: 40. This will vary depending on OA. ac unit air cooled condenser ? what is the outdoor temp and head pressure and indoor temp and suction pressure delta t across evap ie return air temp -supply air temp please read both liquid line temp and suction line temp at the same time as above temps and pressures are read. Comparison Chart. ) Enter all the pressures and temperatures taken on the PH chart. Is it an R134A or R12 system? If R134A, check the pressure on the low side end (Black or blue cap on the line close to the evaporator , the line runs towards the radiator to the condenser), The AC should be on Max with the fan on high for at least 3 minutes, and you should have an optimal reading of 45psi. r22 superheat subcooling calculator charging chart pdf Pressure chart Table 1, shows this relationship. T2 = 170 o F, P2 = 260 Lbs. Total Ac Oil Capacity 03 Sabletaurus Taurus Car Club Of. pressure, high suction pressure and evaporator flooding. High Pressure and Low Pressure Failures: Air conditioning repair Denver by Weatherwise on 06/23/11 The refrigerant circuit for an air conditioning system is divided into two sides. Because of these. then on your chart the gauge will read about 110 degrees f. The liquid freon then runs through an expansion valve that reduces the pressure suddenly, and in the process it becomes cold, low-pressure freon liquid. 1st only patented environmentally friendly hydrocarbon refrigerants HC12a, HC22a, HC502a, hcrefrigerant replacement R134a R12 R22 R502, recycle air conditioning. The team has discovered that drop-in replacements using alternative refrigerants can be. UPDATE R22 cost the dealer $35 a pound now !!! ALSO Your statement says that a heating and air company can recycle R22 then use it. Thanks Frank for replying, chart was very useful, but a domestic unit with R-410a, what is its design pressure? E. new refrigerant. R22 Pressure Enthalpy Chart. {{configCtrl2. pressure (and temperature) as a result of pressure drop in the refrigerant. The boiling point of water is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid water equals the pressure surrounding the water and the water changes into a vapor. Start with the basics for all systems: Methods to properly charge AC system. 1234Yf Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart These pictures of this page are about:R22 Pressure Charging Chart. Probably just running low on refrigerant. Firearm Discussion and Resources from AR-15, AK-47, Handguns and more! Buy, Sell, and Trade your Firearms and Gear. As a result, R22, the standard residential air conditioner refrigerant, was included in the 1987 Montreal Protocol list of substances that were to be phased out of production over time for new air conditioners and heat pumps. 10914 NW 33rd St. Thicknesses of copper pipes used with R410A are as shown in Table. diagramm Line A to B represents the change from high to low pressure. For R-404A Low Temperature 1 psi; for R-404A and R-22 Medium Temperature 2 psi is used. Make sure the reversing valves are working correctly. In the 1950’s the use of R-22 exploded and for nearly sixty years it was THE refrigerant to be used in home, office, and commercial air conditioning. In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency began phasing out R22 air conditioning refrigerant. Pressure Bubble Pressure Dew Pressure Bubble Pressure Dew Pressure Bubble Pressure Dew Pressure. You're pushing liquid refrigerant out into the system like air pressurized pump spray pushes water with air. KVR / NRD, Condensing pressure regulator / Differential pressure valve 34 KVP, Evaporator pressure regulator 36 KVL, Crankcase pressure regulator 38. R22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf The pressure-enthalpy chart, as shown in Fig. Warning: Remember, venting 134a refrigerant into our atmosphere is illegal and bad for our environment. Pressure: Temperature : Pressure: Temperature : Pressure: Temperature: psig ("Hg) Degrees F : psig: Degrees F : psig: Degrees F (22)-62. In this HVAC Training Video I show you How to Read the Refrigerant P/T Chart for the Pressure Temperature Relationship. Check the temperature of the air entering the return air dict nearest to the air handler, then check the air in the plenum above the evaporator coil. Use technical analysis tools such as candles & Fibonacci to generate different instrument comparisons. R22 Should cool right. The manufacturer of your vehicle will specify the suitable pressure for your tyres, and it is your responsibility as the driver to make sure that the pressure is checked and. you are assembling a brand new air conditioner unit. It is used in both automotive and commercial air conditioning applications. {{configCtrl2. The Environmental Protection Agency ordered the phasing out of R-22 because of the refrigerant's ozone-depleting properties and manufacturers replaced it with a new, more environmentally friendly refrigerant called R-410A. R-410A Pressure-temperature chart. The model inputs and outputs are listed below. If you look at a pressure temperature chart you will see R12 / R134a refrigerants used in auto air run very different pressure to R290. The Daikin VRV system is a multi-split type air conditioner for commercial buildings that uses variable refrigerant flow control developed by Daikin to provide customers with the ability to maintain individual zone control in each room and floor of a building. If we want to operate R22 and R410a at the same temperature, then different pressures are required. Software Mollier chart r22 Mollier Diagram easy to use simulation software. FAQs: R22 phase-out for air conditioning systems. The AC Resources Unit prepares and maintains this chart under the direction of the AC Planning Chief. Downloads as a PDF. Hoshizaki cuber refrigerant R-22 charge chart. 5 XRV -- How Much Air Pressure***etc. Additional Information. hg (or inches of mercury). For instance, what are the typical high and low side pressures on a properly charged system for: R-22 on a 1 ton R-22 on a 1. It will no longer be manufactured in the United States or imported. COLOR CODED HOSES: Include 3. Lower limit calculation C, ve found PH many products they make but search bit in theory could coolprop functions create your own it area plotted pertains those conditions dry-bulb temperature, process Safety Management, which describes shorthand way naming refrigerants assigns safety classifications based toxicity. R22 refrigerant, sometimes known as R22 Freon or HCFC-22 Freon, is an environmental danger because it contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. Safety pressure switches with EN 12263 approval and CE marked acc. The inside green scale is labeled R22, it maxes out at 70 where the outside line reads 115 I checked my unit that has never been recharged and it read approx 63 on the green and a little over 100 on the outside I put in 3 cans of R22a from Envirosafe and after the second can the water poured out the drain as the coils thawed. PED (Pressure Equipment Directive) *) R22, R134a, R404A, R407A, R407C, R407F, R422B, R422D, R507A, R717 **) For complete list of approved refrigerants, visit www. The XR13 home air conditioner’s SEER rating of up to 14. In warm weather, tires lose even more air. Thanks Frank for replying, chart was very useful, but a domestic unit with R-410a, what is its design pressure? E. 049 12 3 R22 0. Also use R438A on belt drive systems as it has a lower head pressure than R22. but it won't take much My 12K unit lists 17 ounces as the complete charge. Comparison Chart. (35degs=35psi suction). evaporator suction compressor check suction pressure discharge liquid. Does Your Air Conditioner Use R-22 Refrigerant? Here's What You Should Consider. Chart Pressure Enthalpy Diagram R134a Author: hokage. I can only assume you are confusing R22 with R12 so your posts are really off topic to this thread. software package REFPROP. R22: Molecular weight : 108. Indoor temperature (80 F) minus 40 F = 40 F evaporating temperature. Compare the pressure readings with the. Another common rule of thumb is suction pressure will be close to the outdoor temperature in an R-22 system, this is totally a fluke and has no scientific basis other than it just generally tends to work out that way. 4 psig 150°F (65. If you don't understand the temperature and pressure formulas and superheat calculations bring in a pro and see if you can learn. R22 Drop- In Air conditioners, heatpumps, chillers, refrig eration systems. 9 cc per rotation. 8: Critical pressure: bara: 40. R22 : Introduction Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC). Make Offer - Combo A/C Manifold Gauge Set R134A R410a R22 With 3,5 CFM 1/4HP Air Vacuum Pump 4 Way Diagnostic Manifold Gauge Set R410 R22 R134a Professional AC/HVAC Tool Kit $52. 4 psig 150°F (65. The R22 refrigerant is no longer used in the installation of the new air conditioner as before. Alternative Refrigerant Chart. Temperature Pressure Chart. To know the optimum refrigerant charging, the split air conditioning is filled with R290 of 40%, 50% and 60% of R22 charge. Pressure and ODA Temp Method (Manufacturer's chart, and equipped with TXV or at Fixed near design conditions) Follow manufacturers instructions If provided by the manufacturer and the system is new and or completely clean, the system can be accurately charged by measuring the suction pressure, measuring outdoor air temperature and then adding. procedure) Note: The only dif ference between R404A & R507 is R404A has 4% of R134A added (for patent reasons). 26: Vapour pressure at 25°C: bara: 9. Cost about $800 bucks 4 years ago. Product Details. An original R22 wall room air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 2. R22 Pressure Temperature Chart High Low Homeschoolingforfree, 24 404a Refrigerant Chart Stock. ), the higher pressure level of R410A has to be considered. It is an r-22 system and I am certified in auto ac. 0000001162 00000 n AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATION CHART (R22) Recommended capillary tube lengths for each circuit in an air conditioner evaporator where R22 is the refrigerant. Heating and air conditioning repairs on the volvo 700 and 900 series cars. The Insulin Prescription and Administration Record (IPAR) project is developing a national prescription chart for insulin under the supervision of the Scottish Diabetes Group. T1 = 55 o F, P1 = 69 Lbs. RS-44 (R424A) RS-44 is a direct drop-in replacement for R22 in ac applications in systems with a capillary as well as an expansion device. After considerable research work, RSL decided to develop three products to match R22 in its main applications. Filling gas in Split AC is very easy. The Environmental Protection Agency ordered the phasing out of R-22 because of the refrigerant's ozone-depleting properties and manufacturers replaced it with a new, more environmentally friendly refrigerant called R-410A. There is a slight reduction in capacity which would result in slightly longer run times. ac unit air cooled condenser ? what is the outdoor temp and head pressure and indoor temp and suction pressure delta t across evap ie return air temp -supply air temp please read both liquid line temp and suction line temp at the same time as above temps and pressures are read. In 2010, it became illegal to manufacture new units that use R22. Mollier Chart R22 Is Your Air Conditioner Icing Up Due To Overcharge Hvac Brain. For instance, there is a difference between running on concrete and asphalt. Five sites in Scotland will host initial testing of the IPAR chart in late summer and autumn 2013. After this, the air with the same quantity of energy can be dry hot air (high sensible heat) or refreshed humid air (high latent heat) Vapor pressure - It is the pressure partial vapor in the air. All air conditioners use an oil to keep the compressor lubricated during operation. There should be enough pressure in the system to run the ac with the engine running now, so start the engine and turn on the ac wide open. Adjust air pressure of tire. Inside air conditioning systems are liquid/gas refrigerant. Check System Operation Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps, Through the Wall Condensing Units & Heat Pumps, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Controls. Compressor shaft seal leaking. Nitrogen can enter the system in other ways. R22 Pressures At 70 Degrees. Air conditioner freon is responsible for cooling your car - it's a key component of your car's A/C. Although there are various types of refrigerants, R-32 is a new refrigerant currently receiving the most interest. Weight of "Weigh In" Method. My AC stopped working so I checked the compressor and it seemed to be working just fine. The SL18XP1 has the lowest sound rating of any single-stage heat pump of any major U. It was a massive improvement on what was already available and led to a surge in the usage of air conditioning and refrigeration. Hi! I am working for different types of air conditioning unit servicing and installations ,I have low and high pressure sensors problem in one of York air conditioner,its sumptoms was ,jurk or vibrate the compressor and leak the refregerant. Refrigerant may escape through hoses or another part of the air conditioning system. customer utilities and increase the penetration. To gauge the pressure, hook up a gauge set to the AC system and record the pressures of both low and high sides. R22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf The pressure-enthalpy chart, as shown in Fig. Leak Testers and Refrigerant Identifiers. Azeotropic mixtures have sharp boiling points instead of boiling over a range of temperatures, which is the case with most mixtures. PSIG (°F) AZ-20 R22 PSIG (°F) AZ-20 R22 PSIG (°F) AZ-20 R22 G525-093 04-05-10K 80 234. R134a is hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant, making it chlorine-free and a greener alternative to earlier air conditioning refrigerants, like R22, that cause ozone depletion. Cost about $800 bucks 4 years ago. Used Frick Ammonia Screw Compressors Frick Rotary Screw. and the similarities between R22 and replacement refrigerants using pressure temperature charts. Pay particular attention to the following points, though the basic installation procedure is same as that for R22 air conditioners. For example, whether you can have low profile tyres or another style. PED (Pressure Equipment Directive) *) R22, R134a, R404A, R407A, R407C, R407F, R422B, R422D, R507A, R717 **) For complete list of approved refrigerants, visit www. Chart Pressure Enthalpy Diagram R134a Author: hokage. This will only get you close, you can only tell if its way out of whack. There are both high pressure and low pressure switches; some vehicles are equipped with just a high pressure switch while others have both. Fleet Minded Commercial Truck Tires Top Tire Sizes: 225/70 R19. Alternative Refrigerant Chart. {{configCtrl2. Because R-410A has higher pressure, it requires a different manifold pressure gauge than what is typically used with R-22. An enthalpy— entropy chart, also known as the h— s chart or Mollier diagram, plots the total heat against entropy, describing the enthalpy of a siagramme system. Miscellaneous •Glossary •Safety •Standard threads •Trademarks •Volume - frits •Volume - tubing •Warranty. evaporator suction compressor check suction pressure discharge liquid. And on a 90° F day, the pressure of that gas (R22) is at least 168 psig, which causes it to condense into a liquid (look at a refrigerant pressure-temperature chart). They cannot co mingle. Ra refrigerant ph chart. The cause could be a dirty coil, dirty filter, or poor air flow. REFRIGERANT TEMPERATURE / PRESSURE CHARTS for R-407, R-22, R410a, R-407c, R-134a, R404a, [PDF] ADVANTAGE Engineering, Inc. 525 East Stop 18 Road Greenwood, IN 46142 317-887-0729 fax: 317-881-1277 web site: www. R134a is hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant, making it chlorine-free and a greener alternative to earlier air conditioning refrigerants, like R22, that cause ozone depletion. Environmental Protection Agency-certified technicians can legally buy R-22. Chemical resistance chart •PEEK and other polymers •PEEK at high temperatures. Dear Angie: My air conditioning contractor just charged me $100 per pound for R-22 refrigerant. customer utilities and increase the penetration. Lower limit calculation C, ve found PH many products they make but search bit in theory could coolprop functions create your own it area plotted pertains those conditions dry-bulb temperature, process Safety Management, which describes shorthand way naming refrigerants assigns safety classifications based toxicity. Most used are refrigerated transport and commercial refrigeration field. If there is a hollow, crack or corrosion on the piping, make sure to install new piping. Both of these air conditioning rerefrigerants, R22 and 410A, are in common use throughout the world. For a home air conditioning unit 35 psig low and 125 - 150 psig high (depending on outdoor temp) are desirable. The results of the AC test can be seen in the table below. This doesn’t mean it’s illegal to have an R22 unit, though. Diagrama de mollier r22 pdf 0 t 0 o C. R-12 Pressure Chart. (4 ton and 5 ton) • Side air-discharge (3, 4, 5 ton) • Outside pressure taps for refrigerant system check • Factory supplied charge of R-22 • 7ø Heat exchanger • Energy saving gold. ** Efficiency ratings established per AHRI’s test standard: ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2017 of two-stage central AC/HP equipment. (9) calculated the pressure ratio for R22 and alternative refrigerants. Durable construction Materials and components for all home air conditioning systems are tested again and again for long-lasting performance and reliability. id-2020-12-06-05-15-16 Subject: Chart Pressure Enthalpy Diagram R134a Keywords: chart,pressure,enthalpy,diagram,r134a Created Date: 12/6/2020 5:15:16 AM. For high-glide blends, however, the desired coil temperature is the average (or midpoint) temperature of the coil. Heating and air conditioning repairs on the volvo 700 and 900 series cars. 5 ton 410a on a 1 ton 410a on a 1. R22 Low And High Side Pressure Chart What s a Fair Price for R 22 Refrigerant Angie s List. could you please tell me if there is a formula or r12 to r22 presurre conversion chart - DoItYourself. In heat mode, a dirty outdoor coil can cause a low suction pressure. Pressure is high and cannot be measured with a conventional (R22) gauge. The boiling point of water is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid water equals the pressure surrounding the water and the water changes into a vapor. To use the HVAC Technical Support AC Pressure Temperature Chart, Turn unit on; monitor system running approximately 15 to 30 minutes. To learn what your tire pressure should be, look for your manufacturer’s recommendation, which is printed on a label inside your car. txt) or read online for free. In 2010, it became illegal to manufacture new units that use R22. R22 Air Conditioning Charging Slide Chart. Downloads as a PDF. Refrigerant pressure readings R-22, R-410A, R-290, Gas charging ,R410A R22 R32 pressures, - HINDI This is Ramesh Kurup. Today’s best air conditioners use 30% to 50% less energy to produce the same amount of cooling as air conditioners made in the mid-1970s. , CEM, MBA Continuing Education and Page 12/21. If your air conditioner was manufactured before 2010, it could use an A/C coolant known as R-22, or Freon. The high pressure side and the low pressure side. Microsoft Word Freon 12 chart. Basic Air Conditioning Pressure Temperature Chart 101 Youtube. Its a replacement for R12 and operates at pressures in the same low range as R12. Notably, the discharge pressure of R410a is about 60% higher. Ac Pressure Chart R22. High side will generally be in a ballpark of 250-280 roughly but that depends on ambient temperatures, little lower on water cooled condenser. When it has failed, or if it already failing, it will therefore present with symptoms that are pretty easy to detect. Pressure and ODA Temp Method. The installer needs to release the nitrogen, vacuum to 350 microns, and then charge with R22 according to the charging chart in the installation manual. This 14 seer condensing unit is a great alternative to R410A systems. The Environmental Protection Agency ordered the phasing out of R-22 because of the refrigerant's ozone-depleting properties and manufacturers replaced it with a new, more environmentally friendly refrigerant called R-410A. A tires air pressure is increased to reduce tire deflection for the increase in rotations per second compared to typically city/highway use. It was a massive improvement on what was already available and led to a surge in the usage of air conditioning and refrigeration. diagramm Line A to B represents the change from high to low pressure. The system is probably leaking. Air Conditioning Pressure Chart R22 Sante Blog. Check the temperature of the air entering the return air dict nearest to the air handler, then check the air in the plenum above the evaporator coil. Environmental Protection Agency-certified technicians can legally buy R-22. it is about 38 degrees f. It was discontinued after being listed among hydrochlorofluorocarbons, i. In the number “22” second “2” denotes the number of the fluorine atoms in the compound. If you don't understand the temperature and pressure formulas and superheat calculations bring in a pro and see if you can learn. R22 coils are made from copper which are more likely to leak refrigerant than the R410a coil. Ashok Chakravarthy. I graduate from a Heating and Cooling course in 2 weeks. if any air got in when the charge was low, the high side pressure will be really high and hot. 10 EER Relative to R22 ARI CHEER. R22 Properties R-22 is often referred to as Freon, which is actually one of the top brands. Because of these. Mount the tire on the wheel. Fitting Thread Size Chart The following chart is intended as a quick reference guide for thread size by dash size. june 18th, 2018 - hfc 134a pressure enthalpy diagram si units 4 05 rwj291 printed in u s a replaces h 39916 reorder no h 39916 1''R22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf WordPress com June 21st, 2018 - Trans It combines R22 pressure enthalpy characteristics with mineral oil compatibility in a unique HFC refrigerant that can be R438A. AC r134a air manifold digital high pressure manifold gauge set. Refrigerant Pressure-Temperature Home. T4 = 95 o F (this point is not on the PH chart). government has placed restrictions on R22 and has issued the requirement that R22 refrigerant must be eliminated from use in cooling systems by the year 2020. The Area Command Organization Chart is is posted on the Area Command Post display and may be posted in other places as needed (e. Microsoft Word Freon 12 chart. Keep reading as you seek to know what R134a low-pressure chart is. AC systems with a low R-22 charge do not perform at peak efficiency. NON-TXV CHARGING CALCULATOR For capillary tube and fixed orifice flow control Indoor temp 70 75 80 85 90 95 Outdoor temp. R134a Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Sample Chart free download and preview, download free printable template samples in PDF, Word and Excel formats. Check the ambient temperature and see if the pressures match the numbers on the pressure chart. Author: Jim H. Note: The most ideal pressure readings are around 150 high and 30 low. Created Date: 6/19/2012 3:09:17 PM. Refrigerants - Temperature and Pressure Charts - Temperature and pressure chart for refrigerants R22, R410A, R12, R134A, R401A, R409A, R502, R404A, R507A, R408A and R402A Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant R-22 - Properties of R-22 - vapor volume, enthalpy and entropy at pressures from 30 to 260 psia. If you have a high side reading at 220 psi. Tire inflation pressures also fluctuate with changes in the outside air temperature. It has been phased out due to damage that it does to the ozone layer, so availability is limited to existing stockpiles and refrigerant recovered from decommissioned machines. Please wear your safety glass or related PPE. The Area Command Organization Chart is is posted on the Area Command Post display and may be posted in other places as needed (e. • Cut In = 18 psig • Cut Out = 5 psig • Diff. RS-44b has been sold worldwide for the past 5 years, branded as RS-70 outside the US. 5 ton 410a on a 1 ton 410a on a 1. 60 pressure temp chart-'01 10/31/01 2:54 pm page 1. It is not a consumable item within an air conditioning unit, unless, there is a leak within the system, you have just changed an air conditioner part, OR. " This is more accurate for R12 refrigerant, while R134a refrigerant tends to be a fair bit higher. Make sure that your travel speeds are achieved at a pressure that’s right for the nozzle you’re using. Refrigerant Pressure - Temperature Chart Use the Open or Close icons to see the descriptions below with the icons. Distinct liquid and vapor states do not exist. but it won't take much My 12K unit lists 17 ounces as the complete charge. 50 Pieces (Min. The COP of R22, depending on the operating conditions of 5% – 15 higher. Basic Air Conditioning Pressure Temperature Chart 101 Youtube. The manufacturer of your vehicle will specify the suitable pressure for your tyres, and it is your responsibility as the driver to make sure that the pressure is checked and. This simple fix recharges the R-134a (freon), stop leaks & gets your car A/C cold again. You're pushing liquid refrigerant out into the system like air pressurized pump spray pushes water with air. This doesn’t mean it’s illegal to have an R22 unit, though. Copeland Scroll™ Technology When Emerson first pioneered the use of scroll technology in compressors, it changed the industry forever. Probably because the compressor is new, it air conditions far better than my R-12 systems on my other vehicles. R22 refrigerant is also known as Freon. Refrigerants - Temperature and Pressure Charts. Sam's Blog also features posts on heating maintenance, air conditioning repair and indoor air quality. Freon is a halocarbon that cycles through your A/C. Selecting the Right Refrigerant When designing a refrigeration system, there are several refrigerants from which to choose. In a typical air-conditioner, R407C performs comparably to R22 in positive displacement, direct expansion systems because it was specially designed to closely match R22 in pressure and performance characteristics. This will only get you close, you can only tell if its way out of whack. This chart covers the maximum vehicle load, the normal pressure for cold tyres, and the recommended tyre size for your car. In this HVAC Training Video I show you How to Read the Refrigerant P/T Chart for the Pressure Temperature Relationship. Because of these. R-22 was invented by a partnership with General Motors and DuPont back in If you would like to read more about R-22 Freon refrigerant please click here to be taken to our refrigerant fact sheet. R22 Pressure-Temperature Chart. Durable construction Materials and components for all home air conditioning systems are tested again and again for long-lasting performance and reliability. Safety Data Sheet. As R410A has working pressure approximately 1. Hoshizaki cuber refrigerant R-22 charge chart. For more information on normal AC pressures, see the chart below. An appreciation of the terms superheat and saturation is the key. The cause could be a dirty coil, dirty filter, or poor air flow. 88) or R407C (2. Air flow matters. june 18th, 2018 - hfc 134a pressure enthalpy diagram si units 4 05 rwj291 printed in u s a replaces h 39916 reorder no h 39916 1''R22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf WordPress com June 21st, 2018 - Trans It combines R22 pressure enthalpy characteristics with mineral oil compatibility in a unique HFC refrigerant that can be R438A. = 13 psig High Pressure Control Settings All refrigeration applications using the outdoor ambient air to cool the condenser, the maximum settings. (9) calculated the pressure ratio for R22 and alternative refrigerants. R-22 has become more common in refrigeration so that would depend upon the desired temperature. R408A R409A R410A R502 R507A. Five sites in Scotland will host initial testing of the IPAR chart in late summer and autumn 2013. 5 ton I understand. Mollier Chart R22 Is Your Air Conditioner Icing Up Due To Overcharge Hvac Brain. Welcome to my blog! I'm a Module 3 student, BA (Hons) Professional Practice in Arts and Creative Industries at Middlesex University and I'm sharing my journey, tips, updates and questions in my blog. R-12 is one of those classic refrigerants that nearly everyone has heard of before. It is the common phase "environment friendly" replacement for R12 but does require system retrofit modifications. Lower limit calculation C, ve found PH many products they make but search bit in theory could coolprop functions create your own it area plotted pertains those conditions dry-bulb temperature, process Safety Management, which describes shorthand way naming refrigerants assigns safety classifications based toxicity. You would be smart to dump the whole charge, flush the system with an This is one of many reasons why you really should use a pressure/temperature chart and/or a superheat/sub-cooling calculator along with digital. A/C DIAGNOSTICS: Professional 3-way air conditioning diagnostic manifold gauge set for R134A, R12, R22, and R502 refrigerants. Enter the temperature in either F or C degrees and the returned result is the alternate temperature and determined pressure in Barg and psig. The objective of the present study is to compare water as a refrigerant (R718) with the refrigerants R717 (ammonia), R12, R22, R134a,. *Complete warranty details are available from your local dealer or at www. Use a temperature-to-pressure chart to convert the pressure to the saturated condensing temperature of the refrigerant (Pressure-Temperature Chart). 070 10 3 R22 0. Our goal is to improve the safety, efficiency, and productivity of industrial refrigeration systems and technologies. It can be used for recharging refrigerant, or to diagnose an a/c system based on pressure readings from your gauges. This is the maximum allowable pressure drop for the entire. Awesome Collection Of Automotive Ac Pressure Chart Wonderful Guide. In cool weather, a tire will typically lose one or two pounds of air per month. Durable construction Materials and components for all home air conditioning systems are tested again and again for long-lasting performance and reliability. Please wear your safety glass or related PPE. Weight of "Weigh In" Method. Engineering ToolBox, (2010). One cap is labeled "H" (for high pressure) and the other is labeled "L" (for low). R22: Molecular weight : 108. Enter the temperature in either F or C degrees and the returned result is the alternate temperature and determined pressure in Barg and psig. The surface temperature of asphalt is usually hotter than concrete and may increase the tire pressure another one or two PSI. Total Ac Oil Capacity 03 Sabletaurus Taurus Car Club Of. This will vary depending on OA. This is very general and without all the other considerations a trained technician would employ, I think you'll be satisfied with the outcome if you don't go over 68psig. Another common rule of thumb is suction pressure will be close to the outdoor temperature in an R-22 system, this is totally a fluke and has no scientific basis other than it just generally tends to work out that way. Diagrams: System Pressure Chart Get a quick look at what an average A/C system looks like, along with the compressor manufacturer and what the specific R-134a requirements are for your car. Never use copper pipes thinner than 0. A closer look at how pressure and temperature are related to one another will help us understand the importance of Gay Lussac’s Law in chemistry and help us learn how to interpret a pressure-temperature chart, like one for r22 PT. Find good deals on great tires from Kelly Tires - the smart choice for everyday drivers on a budget without compromising on quality. Our AC charging gauge kit will fulfil your need to charge your aircon system whether it is an R134a, R410a or R404a system. I am a professional Air Conditioner. T S Diagram R22. 2% R115’T is. The team has discovered that drop-in replacements using alternative refrigerants can be. A closer look at how pressure and temperature are related to one another will help us understand the importance of Gay Lussac’s Law in chemistry and help us learn how to interpret a pressure-temperature chart, like one for r22 PT. IF it is low, Ed, that should do it. R22 : Introduction Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC). The evaporator (cold coil) on any air conditioning system should never be below 32 degrees f. pdf), Text File (. Air Conditioning systems are engineered and designed to operate with a specific refrigerant. 2 As a result, manufacturers of AC and heat pump equipment redesigned their systems to accommodate R410A, a chlorine-free. One of the tools needed is an information tool called the pressure chart. 50 gives you the right mix of cooling and energy efficiency, which may help lower your home cooling costs. An air conditioning system does not consume refrigerant, but reuses it. Nitrogen can enter the system in other ways. Diagrams: System Pressure Chart Get a quick look at what an average A/C system looks like, along with the compressor manufacturer and what the specific R-134a requirements are for your car. R-12 Pressure Chart. 9 cc per rotation. NOTE: High humidity and airflow velocity across the evaporator and condenser have a direct effect on pressure readings. AC Service Tech LLC. If the condenser pressure is higher than the saturation pressure that corresponds to the ambient temperature, noncondensables may be present in the condenser. This simple fix recharges the R-134a (freon), stop leaks & gets your car A/C cold again. If your air conditioner was manufactured before 2010, it could use an A/C coolant known as R-22, or Freon. Distribution. en: refrigerant temperature pressure chart R22, R410A, R12, R134A, R401A, R409A, R502, R404A, R507A, R408A, R402A. If you don't understand the temperature and pressure formulas and superheat calculations bring in a pro and see if you can learn. Keep reading as you seek to know what R134a low-pressure chart is. 2 P = Suction Pressure Unloading, Models A, B, E, & F Only. R22 Pressure enthalpy chart. Both R404a and R410a have higher discharge pressures than R22. Only trained and qualified personnel should install, repair, or service air−conditioning equipment. Compressor application limits should not be chosen for design purposes or continuous operation. Miscellaneous •Glossary •Safety •Standard threads •Trademarks •Volume - frits •Volume - tubing •Warranty. R22 Temperature Pressure Chart Template 2 Free Templates in PDF, Word, Excel. 385 bar for 1 TR system and 2. Air pressure in tires is measured in pounds per square inch, or PSI; usually, the recommended pressure ranges between 30 and 35 PSI. R422B refrigerant, 25lb Cylinder, R22 Replacement NU-22B® Replaces R-22, R-407C, R-422D and R-417A. The Goodman GSC13 13 SEER Air Conditioner features the unique Goodman sound control top design for quiet operation. RS45’s compression Ratio matches R22 5. Most often this information is branded on the tire's sidewall. R22 Air Conditioning Charging Slide Chart. 88) or R407C (2. Diagrama de mollier r22 pdf 0 t 0 o C. R22 Pressures At 70 Degrees. R134a is hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant, making it chlorine-free and a greener alternative to earlier air conditioning refrigerants, like R22, that cause ozone depletion. {{configCtrl2. Please note the coloured areas. Compressor application limits should not be chosen for design purposes or continuous operation. So, again: At approx. The pressure of the refrigerant corresponds with the temperature. Low pressure settings for typical applications Table 1: P70, P72 approximate low pressure settings for typical applications Vacuum - in. USING LINE SIZING CHARTS Basis These line sizing charts are based on a suction pressure drop equivalent to a 2°F change in saturation pressure and liquid line pressure drop of 5 psi. Advantages. View and download ford ranger maintaince and repair manual online. com Community Forums. Our goal is to improve the safety, efficiency, and productivity of industrial refrigeration systems and technologies. to/2LFjNnK R410A Refrigerant: https://. NU-22B is the only R-22 replacement you need. Firearm Discussion and Resources from AR-15, AK-47, Handguns and more! Buy, Sell, and Trade your Firearms and Gear. Cost about $800 bucks 4 years ago. R134a boasts great chemical stability and is non-flammable—and it’s powerful too. Driving on tires with incorrect air pressure, on the other hand, means disaster could strike any time – and at any speed. = 13 psig High Pressure Control Settings All refrigeration applications using the outdoor ambient air to cool the condenser, the maximum settings. R410A is a non-ozone depleting binary blend of two HFC refrigerants, comprising 50% of R32 and 50%. The following table presents the possible inferences and the actions that can be taken, based on the level of pressure registered by the high and low pressure gauges:. 50 gives you the right mix of cooling and energy efficiency, which may help lower your home cooling costs. R22 Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart , Ac Pressure Chart R22 Fresh Hvacr Tech Tip Considering A, Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart, Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart, Resume Templates Open Fice. Manufacturer's chart, and equipped with TXV or at Fixed near designs conditions. For blends, however, proceed as follows: Using gauges, determine the pressure at the outlet of your condenser. The condenser is NOT to be activated until there is an R22 charge in the system. FAQs: R22 phase-out for air conditioning systems. On January 1, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented a ban on the production and import of R22, except for continuing servicing needs of existing equipment. Air Conditioning systems are engineered and designed to operate with a specific refrigerant. *** Air conditioners/heat pumps have sound ratings established per AHRI’s test standard: AHRI 270-08 (February 2015). RETROFIT PROCEDURE. It is a 100% natural hydrocarbon organic refrigerant without chlorine or fluorine. Over time, if you find that the air blowing from the unit is warm, you may need to add R-22 to your unit. That’s why it’s recommended that you check air pressure every other time you stop. The refrigerant pressures are typically measured at the service valves at the ac condenser. Compressor shaft seal leaking. KVR / NRD, Condensing pressure regulator / Differential pressure valve 34 KVP, Evaporator pressure regulator 36 KVL, Crankcase pressure regulator 38. but it won't take much My 12K unit lists 17 ounces as the complete charge. Replacing or recharging the Freon in your homes air conditioning unit costs anywhere from $100 to $250. Software Mollier chart r22 Mollier Diagram easy to use simulation software. Pressure Difference @ ARI [psi] Volumetric Capacity @ ARI [Ton/cfm] Best Fit R123 R11 R245fa R114 R600a R12 R134a R290 R22 R407C R717 R507 R410A R22 NH 3 R404A/R507 Propane R407C R410A R134a R22 & its near neighbors Comparison of Simple Cycle EER R22 R134a R290 R407C R507 R410A 0. And on a 90° F day, the pressure of that gas (R22) is at least 168 psig, which causes it to condense into a liquid (look at a refrigerant pressure-temperature chart). There are both high pressure and low pressure switches; some vehicles are equipped with just a high pressure switch while others have both. Today’s best air conditioners use 30% to 50% less energy to produce the same amount of cooling as air conditioners made in the mid-1970s. From my experience normal R22 pressures may be somewhere around 70psi for suction and 240psi for head pressure. R22 refrigerant, sometimes known as R22 Freon or HCFC-22 Freon, is an environmental danger because it contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. The R22 refrigerant is no longer used in the installation of the new air conditioner as before. Ac Pressures Chart. Pressure is high and cannot be measured with a conventional (R22) gauge. 1 The EPA also banned the manufacture and installation of new R22 AC or heat pump systems. Used Frick Ammonia Screw Compressors Frick Rotary Screw. procedure) Note: The only dif ference between R404A & R507 is R404A has 4% of R134A added (for patent reasons). View and download ford ranger maintaince and repair manual online. The system will need to be running to draw the refrigerant from the can. Remember to check the condenser and evaporator coils for blockage as this is many times overlooked and some techs jump to the conclusion that the system is under charged. * the above data is accurate for F-2000MLE connected with. Jan 30, 2020 - R 134a refrigerant pressure temperature 404a pt chart gallery of 2019 ac pressure chart r 134a temperature refrigerator 134a pressure chart refrigerant pressure temperature chart 134a Pressure Chart Gallery Of 2019ChartrounpabingTemperature Pressure Chart For R 22 410a 407c 134a And 404a Refrigerants134a Refrigerant Chart The FutureUsing The P T Chart To Diagnose Refrigeration A. Excessive suction pressure beyond the limits of the compressors ability to start and run. 04 - Pressure switches and Thermostats 28. The air conditioner in a car or truck may not produce cool air if a leak is present in any part of the system. 4 kW and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 3. NON-TXV CHARGING CALCULATOR For capillary tube and fixed orifice flow control Indoor temp 70 75 80 85 90 95 Outdoor temp. Make sure the reversing valves are working correctly. PT CHART FOR GENETRON® 422D New Pressure-based Charts Make Calculating Glide Easier Refrigerants SUPERHEAT Procedure: • Use gauges to determine the press ure at the evaporator coil outlet, and a thermometer to get the actual temperature at the same point. The XR13 home air conditioner’s SEER rating of up to 14. 11,000ft PA and 0 C, I'm at 11,800ft DA. This is because the helicopter can not deal with the stress of increased horsepower. To learn what your tire pressure should be, look for your manufacturer’s recommendation, which is printed on a label inside your car. Our AC charging gauge kit will fulfil your need to charge your aircon system whether it is an R134a, R410a or R404a system. Both of these air conditioning rerefrigerants, R22 and 410A, are in common use throughout the world. NON-TXV CHARGING CALCULATOR For capillary tube and fixed orifice flow control Indoor temp 70 75 80 85 90 95 Outdoor temp. Although chlorine-free refrigerants, such as R134a and R404A/R507A (Structural classification of refrigerants and Substitutes for CFC and HCFC refrigerants) have been widely used − but are already being replaced by alternatives with lower GWP in the EU for example − R22 is still used internationally in many areas, both for new installations and for. R-134a TEMPERATURE PRESSURE CHART (Tabla de Temperaturas y Lecturas). So I went and picked up some R134a with the gage on it thinking it must be time for a recharge. Five sites in Scotland will host initial testing of the IPAR chart in late summer and autumn 2013. Use the Open or Close icons to see the descriptions below with the icons. Every passenger tire has a very specific load range, but when it comes to light truck tires, load ranges are given in ascending alphabetical order. That’s why it’s recommended that you check air pressure every other time you stop. When you can measure how much air pressure is in the induction system, just before the air / fuel mixture enters into the cylinders, you will have a good idea of how much power you are developing. This is a situation that will also need to be corrected. T4 = 95 o F (this point is not on the PH chart). Distribution. 05 - Pressure and temperature regulating valves 34. The R22 Beta II is the first model with the powerful O-360-J2A engine. Actual production head pressure and suction pressure will vary depending on the specific R-22 Rack System setup. software package REFPROP. ‎HVAC PT Chart is an electronic pressure temperature calculator that allows HVAC technicians and contractors to quickly look up the temperature and corresponding pressure for 100+ common HVAC refrigerants including both bubble and dew versions of azeotropic (mixture) refrigerants. #100, Miami, FL 33172 USA Tech Support: +1(800) 226-9550 Phone: +1(305) 406-2331. R22, R23, R32, R, R. The Insulin Prescription and Administration Record (IPAR) project is developing a national prescription chart for insulin under the supervision of the Scottish Diabetes Group. Use technical analysis tools such as candles & Fibonacci to generate different instrument comparisons. RS-44 (R424A) RS-44 is a direct drop-in replacement for R22 in ac applications in systems with a capillary as well as an expansion device. R22 Low And High Side Pressure Chart What s a Fair Price for R 22 Refrigerant Angie s List. Properties of materials •Metals •Polymers. brand of heat. An air conditioning system does not consume refrigerant, but reuses it. Filling gas in Split AC is very easy. This 14 seer condensing unit is a great alternative to R410A systems. heat as it should. Replacing or recharging the Freon in your homes air conditioning unit costs anywhere from $100 to $250. com and search for individual code numbers, where refrigerants are listed as part of technical data. r22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf Prusm Convmians: Specific Volume Internal Energy Enthalpy Entropy. As high and low pressure weather systems move across the area causing wide scale uplifting or descending air movement the pressure will also change. Topic: Michelin 255/80R 22. Total Ac Oil Capacity 03 Sabletaurus Taurus Car Club Of. T3 = 110 o F. com Community Forums. ple, if you “Set ATM” in Denver and take a pressure reading of an A/C system in Los Angeles, the pres-sure reading in Los Angeles will be lower than it actually is. Air Conditioner t Subcooling ENGLISH METRIC R22 R410A Set M ASX14 SH SC Superheat and Subcooling Head for R22 and R410A with pipe clamp thermocouple Model: ASX14 OPERATOR’S MANUAL Description The model ASX14 superheat and subcooling accessory head measures refrigerant pressure and temperature simultaneously. Distribution. PT CHART FOR GENETRON® 422D New Pressure-based Charts Make Calculating Glide Easier Refrigerants SUPERHEAT Procedure: • Use gauges to determine the press ure at the evaporator coil outlet, and a thermometer to get the actual temperature at the same point. It is recommended the gauge with seals -0. My home ac system is not cooling effectively. Mollier Chart R22 Is Your Air Conditioner Icing Up Due To Overcharge Hvac Brain. Using a PT chart or pressure temperature chart one can determine the pressure or the temperature of the refrigerant. Forane 134a Pressure Temperature Chart Author: Arkema Inc. At saturation pressure=temperature, both high-pressure liquid and vapor are at the same temperature. 00) than for either R22 (2. Inspirational Air Conditioner Pressure Chart R22 Freeletter Findby Co. For one, R 22 is its own refrigerant whereas the replacement refrigerants are made up of several different kinds of refrigerants designed to mimic operating pressures/temperatures of R 22. Check the temperature of the air entering the return air dict nearest to the air handler, then check the air in the plenum above the evaporator coil. Although chlorine-free refrigerants, such as R134a and R404A/R507A (Structural classification of refrigerants and Substitutes for CFC and HCFC refrigerants) have been widely used − but are already being replaced by alternatives with lower GWP in the EU for example − R22 is still used internationally in many areas, both for new installations and for. devices, determine the suction line pressure and temperature as well as the outdoor ambient tempera-ture. evaporator coil. As an example, Trane includes a pressure curve chart with many heat pump condensing units. R410A is a non-ozone depleting binary blend of two HFC refrigerants, comprising 50% of R32 and 50%. , CEM, MBA Continuing Education and Page 12/21. replaced filters checked airflow across coils. Pressure/Temperature Comparison. (Can replace R502 but requires careful retro- t. As an example: Air conditioner R-22. Note that this refrigerant is fairly standard in automotive air conditioning systems but the rooftop units on your RV, while still using the same basic design of air conditioning, do not use R134a and typically use R22. T S Diagram R22. To do this, you will need to remove refrigerant from the AC system. Today’s best air conditioners use 30% to 50% less energy to produce the same amount of cooling as air conditioners made in the mid-1970s. I graduate from a Heating and Cooling course in 2 weeks. A practical way to apply their knowledge saturation temperature and pressure, it should be recognized that the temperature at which you store refrigerant cylinders will influence the pressure. View the official Toyo Tires commercial truck tire website to locate a tire dealer near you or find the ideal commercial tires by application. If any […]. Pre-programmed with 24 popular refrigerants: R-22 R-32 R-134a R-290 R-404A, R-407A R-407C R-407F R-408A R-409A, R-410A R-414B R-417A R-421A R. You'll recharge your AC through the low-pressure port. R22 Pressure-Temperature Chart. To gauge the pressure, hook up a gauge set to the AC system and record the pressures of both low and high sides. An air conditioning system does not consume refrigerant, but reuses it. T3 = 110 o F. Ashok Chakravarthy. This is very general and without all the other considerations a trained technician would employ, I think you'll be satisfied with the outcome if you don't go over 68psig. Hi! I am working for different types of air conditioning unit servicing and installations ,I have low and high pressure sensors problem in one of York air conditioner,its sumptoms was ,jurk or vibrate the compressor and leak the refregerant. r22 refrigerant pressure-enthalpy chart From Pressure Enthalpy Diagram at corresponding pressure and temperatures. Where can I find pressure enthalpy charts for Ra R77 and for ideal evaluating performance. (4 ton and 5 ton) • Side air-discharge (3, 4, 5 ton) • Outside pressure taps for refrigerant system check • Factory supplied charge of R-22 • 7ø Heat exchanger • Energy saving gold. Warning: Remember, venting 134a refrigerant into our atmosphere is illegal and bad for our environment. 25 USD Quantity 10 ($9. R22 pressure enthalpy chart pdf The pressure-enthalpy chart, as shown in Fig. R-22 is no longer used for installing new ac systems as it was discontinued in 2010 due to it being a hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC). The high pressure reading fluctuates greatly with engine speed, air humidity, and other factors, but a very rough rule of thumb is "high pressure psi = 2 x temperature in Fahrenheit. Most often this information is branded on the tire's sidewall. The cause could be a dirty coil, dirty filter, or poor air flow. As long as there are no leaks in the refrigerant circuit, there is no need to ever add more refrigerant to an air conditioning system. Start with the basics for all systems: Methods to properly charge AC system. They cannot co mingle. Make sure the reversing valves are working correctly. R22 Pressure-Temperature Chart. maximum air pressure limit stamped on the wheels. Psig is equal to psis at sea level (14. The refrigerant pressures are typically measured at the service valves at the ac condenser. You're pushing liquid refrigerant out into the system like air pressurized pump spray pushes water with air. So, again: At approx. 070 10 3 R22 0. Never use copper pipes thinner than 0. Clean coils. 5 Psig, but R410a must be operated at a much higher pressure, 201. Basic Air Conditioning Pressure Temperature Chart 101 Youtube. Make Offer - Combo A/C Manifold Gauge Set R134A R410a R22 With 3,5 CFM 1/4HP Air Vacuum Pump 4 Way Diagnostic Manifold Gauge Set R410 R22 R134a Professional AC/HVAC Tool Kit $52. Enter the pressure readings from your manifold gauges and clamp the thermocouple more on the tube to activate the display reading. could you please tell me if there is a formula or r12 to r22 presurre conversion chart - DoItYourself. [online] Available at: https. AdvantageEngineering. Get important tips on improving your indoor air quality and more by reading Sams Blog. Select your refrigerant. Line A to B represents the change from high to low pressure. 407c Pt Chart Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Charts For Ideas Of Ac Temp Chart Nice 22 Unique 134a Pressure Chart K9a9y0. R134a And Some Chemistry Fun Honda Odyssey Forum. Your pressure should be 250-275 on discharge line and 65-75 on suction. Problem is that ya don't have a high side gauge. Today’s best air conditioners use 30% to 50% less energy to produce the same amount of cooling as air conditioners made in the mid-1970s. R22 Low And High Side Pressure Chart What s a Fair Price for R 22 Refrigerant Angie s List. Tion, subcooling, temperature glide and how they pertain to air. Temperature. Refrigerant R22 is widely used for residential and commercial air conditioning, as well as commercial refrigeration Pressure/Temperature Chart. Never pressurize a mixture of air and refrigerant since it may become flammable. It is used in both automotive and commercial air conditioning applications. In this article, let us look at one type of a pressure chart called R134a low side pressure chart. It will no longer be manufactured in the United States or imported. R410A is a non-ozone depleting binary blend of two HFC refrigerants, comprising 50% of R32 and 50%. So when charging a/c systems, chart is referenced to make sure that proper amount of refrigerant is used. 6 times as high as that of R22, some special tools and piping parts/. The new coolant. A closer look at how pressure and temperature are related to one another will help us understand the importance of Gay Lussac’s Law in chemistry and help us learn how to interpret a pressure-temperature chart, like one for r22 PT. com, of which pressure gauges accounts for 3%. Pay particular attention to the following points, though the basic installation procedure is same as that for R22 air conditioners. It is a positive delight in hot weather. It will still be available in South Africa until 2030. diagramm Line A to B represents the change from high to low pressure. As an air conditioner using R410A incurs pressure higher than when using R22, it is necessary to choose adequate materials. Product Details. It then calculates and displays. 070 10 3 R22 0. This is because the helicopter can not deal with the stress of increased horsepower. If the pressure is higher than the chart, it is either overcharged or may have air (non-condensable) in the system. AC r134a air manifold digital high pressure manifold gauge set. R22 : Introduction Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC). A/C DIAGNOSTICS: Professional 3-way air conditioning diagnostic manifold gauge set for R134A, R12, R22, and R502 refrigerants.